Here is the result of our sociology students' metacognitive success.

Main Idea: Students learn academic skills and cognitive skills in high school.

  1. Academic skills
    1. use computers
    2. write 3-part essays
    3. differentiate equations
  2. Cognitive development
    1. think critically
    2. weigh evidence
    3. develop independent judgement

Cognitive: of or pertaining to the mental processes of perception, memory, judgment, and reasoning, as contrasted with emotional and volitional processes. --www.dictionary.com

Original Text:

One of the major processes that takes place in schools, of course, is that students learn. When they graduate from high school, many can use a computer, write essays with three-part theses, and differentiate equations. In addition to learning specific skills, they also undergo a process of cognitive development wherein their mental skills grow and expand. They learn to think critically, to weigh evidence, to develop independent judgment. The extent to which this development takes place is related to both school and home environments.


Main Idea: Studies show types of school work that produce strong cognitive development.

  1. School enhances cognitive development
    1. complex work
    2. demanding work
    3. w/o close supervision
    4. high teacher expectations
  2. This produces students with:
    1. intellectual flexibility
    2. higher achievement test scores
    3. more open to new ideas
    4. less authoritarian
    5. less prone blind conformity

Enhanced: to raise to a higher degree; intensify; magnify --www.dictionary.com

Original Text:

An impressive set of studies demonstrates that cognitive development during the school years is enhanced by complex and demanding work without close supervision and by high teacher expectations. Teachers and curricula that furnish this setting produce students who have greater intellectual flexibility and higher achievement test scores. They are also more open to new ideas, less authoritarian, and less prone to blind conformity.

Main idea: Students from a social class lower than their teachers learn less because the teachers are less demanding.

Original Text:

Unfortunately, the availability of these ideal learning conditions varies by students' social class. Studies show that teachers are most demanding when they are of the same social class as their students. The greater the difference between their own social class and that of their pupils, the more rigidly they structure their classrooms and the fewer demands they place on their students. As a result, students learn less when they come from a social class lower than that of their teacher. The social class gap tends to be largest when youngsters are the most disadvantaged, and this process helps to keep them disadvantaged.