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Strategies for an Effective Reading Process: Reading Rhetorically

In The Rhetoric, Aristotle claimed that there are two ways to present a case: through inartistic proofs and through artistic proofs. Inartistic proofs include empirical data, testimonies under oath, or other evidence accepted as truth or fact. Inartistic proofs can essentially stand on their own without any work on the writer's part. Artistic proofs, however, do employ rhetoric--and their success depends on the ability of the speaker to articulate the points to a receptive audience. The first three strategies here help students understand and analyze the uses of Aristotle's three artistic proofs: logos, pathos, and ethos.


Strategy 1 icon Strategy 2 icon Strategy 3 icon

Analyzing for logos

Analyzing for pathos

Analyzing for ethos

Strategy 4 icon Strategy 5 icon

Analyzing for fallacies

Analyzing the rhetorical situation