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Strategy #1: Analyzing for logos


In most academic writing, students will encounter logos, or logical proofs. Logos appears as statistics, definitions, arguments from sign, cause and effect relationships, and inductive and deductive arguments. Logical arguments are appropriate when the subject matter is technical or complicated and when the audience is well informed.


A simple chart of these logical proofs appears in the handout section at the end of this module. Share it with students to improve their understanding of logical proofs.

Type

Description

Example

Statistics

use numbers, percentages, ratios, trends, and so on. Often they are presented in graphics.

Of the families surveyed, 45, or 14%, report that the new city park has improved their neighborhood.

Definition

creates an argument by defining a term that may be contentious or debatable.

Global warming is the gradual rise of the earth's surface temperature which is caused by pollution, increasing the greenhouse effect.

Sign

creates a connection between one condition or presence and another.

Lower property taxes and free coffee on Fridays show that the city's new mayor has had a successful first year.

Cause and effect

establishes a relationship between a result and the causes of it.

The decrease in childhood cavities is due to the infusion of fluoride into city drinking water.

Induction

proves a general claim by providing examples.

The students in Dr. Pho's general chemistry, organic chemistry, and introduction to research in chemistry classes all passed with a C or better. Therefore, Dr. Pho is an exemplary chemistry professor.

Deduction

applies a general claim to a series of examples.

Dr. Pho is an exemplary chemistry professor. Therefore, his students in general chemistry, organic chemistry, and introduction to research in chemistry will pass with a C or better.